For learning to occur, an initial set must be provided
through questioning, demonstration, discrepant events, or models.
manipulate materials, make observations, ask questions. This is the engagement
stage, used to challenge or encourage the student.
This stage is
the guiding stage where teachers assist students in constructing their knowledge
to provide a scientific conceptual understanding. Guidance is given toward an
“Aha!” rather than telling them what to think, by using prior knowledge
and assisting them to construct their own understanding based on patterns and
relationships. As much as possible, explanations should be in student’s
own words with teacher assistance/ clarification.
This stage seeks
to deepen understanding to overcome superficial knowledge that can be mistaken
for true understanding. Questions for further exploration and explanation tend
to expand understanding and sharpen the skills of scientific thought in relevant,
Guiding questions throughout the learning cycle inform the teacher of the level of understanding and the direction of further exploration, explanation, and expansion. Good evaluation informs instruction as well as defining the level of understanding of the learner. Informal and formal assessment is tightly linked to stated outcomes at each phase.